Reward System and Addiction


Addiction: A Disease of Learning and Memory

Addiction: making the connection between behavioral changes and neuronal plasticity in specific pathways.

Addiction Pathways and Dendritic Changes


Afferent projections to the ventral tegmental area of Tsai and interfascicular nucleus: a horseradish peroxidase study in the rat.

Alcohol promotes dopamine release in the human nucleus accumbens.

Amygdalar control of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system: parallel pathways to motivated behavior.

Baclofen antagonizes nicotine-, cocaine-, and morphine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of rat.
The Brain’s Drug Reward System

The Brain on Drugs (Brain on Cocaine)

Caffeine induces dopamine and glutamate release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens.

Cannabis and alcohol–a close friendship.
Cholinergic modulation of dopaminergic reward areas: upstream and downstream targets of nicotine addiction.

A common profile of prefrontal cortical activation following exposure to nicotine- or chocolate-associated contextual cues.

Compulsive drug-seeking behavior and relapse. Neuroadaptation, stress, and conditioning factors.

Conditioned release of corticosterone by contextual stimuli associated with cocaine is mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor.

Differential inhibition using contextual stimuli.

The dopamine-containing neuron: maestro or simple musician in the orchestra of addiction?

Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex.


Effects of contextual priming on reactions to craving and withdrawal stimuli in alcohol-dependent participants.

Environmental stimuli promote the acquisition of nicotine self-administration in rats.

Functional imaging and neurochemical correlates of stimulant self-administration in primates.

GABAergic mechanisms of heroin-induced brain activation assessed with functional MRI.

How Drugs Influence Transmitters in the Brain


Ionic Mechanisms of Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Alcohol on Brain Neurons

Long-Lasting Resistance to Extinction of Addictive Behavior Induced by Ethanol-Related Stimuli

The Memory of Drugs (Activation of Amygdala)

Memory processes in addiction

Neuroanatomy and Physiology of the “Brain Reward System” in Substance Abuse

Neurochemical and behavioral studies on ethanol and nicotine interactions.



Opposite modulatory roles for adenosine A1 and A2A receptors on glutamate and dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Effects of chronic caffeine exposure.

Passive exposure to a contextual discriminative stimulus reinstates cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

The Pleasure Centres

The Pleasure Centres Affected by Drugs

The Reward Pathway

Role of different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mediating behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethanol in mice.Alcohol. 2002 Nov;28(3):157-67.

Role of dopamine, the frontal cortex and memory circuits in drug addiction: insight from imaging studies.

[Sugar triggers our reward-system. Sweets release opiates which stimulates the appetite for sucrose–insulin can depress it]

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